Access control systems
Access control systems are inseparable parts of the complex object’s security systems. The main task of access control system is restriction and differentiation of the access towards different areas of the object under control by certain approaches. Access control systems make it possible to control entry and exit, movement and access of personnel and visitors towards certain premises of the secured object. The main demands to access control systems are simplicity, comfort of their utilization and safety as well. Usually access control systems contain few elements, namely: personal identification code, readout system, data processing and actuating devices system controlling the access to the object.
Different types of swipe and contactless cards, electronic switches and radio breloques are used as the users’ authorization. The readers can have different constructions and forms – from contactless devices till key boards of digital security locks. Actuating devices can also have different constructions; it can be a door with digital security lock, turnstile, roadway gate, electronic gateway’s drive and a lot of others.
The main role of access control system is performed by its controller - hardware-software complex responsible for users’ identification and for control of actuating devices. Access controllers may have off-line, centralized of combined implementation. Autonomous/off-line controllers are installed directly on the certain object where they check up the access to the object, for instance, on the door with automatic lock and they operate, as a rule, one actuating device. Network or centralized controllers serve the complex of the readers and actuating devices and can be realized on the base of computers with specialized software. Centralized controllers alongside the control and access control enable to register employees’ operating time and to fulfil a lot of auxiliary functions. Combined security controllers join in themselves the functions of autonomous and line-operated controllers, in the case of connection with supervisory computer they work in regime of line-operated controllers, without it – come to autonomous regime.
Access control systems can have different degree of complexity. Thus, the easiest is electric digital security lock with autonomous controller installed on the door, with the key board for code setting or with the reader of the users’ identification. The complex of reading and actuating devices connected by network controllers under computer facilities’ control are used in more complicated systems.