Actuating devices in access control systems directly reduce or give access towards different areas of controlled territory or the object. Steered latches, locks, turnstiles of different variants, elevators, entrance security cabins, automatic gates and lots of others are used as actuating devices. Control of actuating devices is fulfilled by the controllers of access control system. The selection of actuating device depends upon the object’s type, upon the equipment’s service conditions, specifics of the mode and upon security requirements on the object. Depending upon these and some other factors the variant of actuating devices’ access control system can differ a lot.
Electromechanical locks and latches
Electromechanical locks and latches operate quite simply. In electromechanical catchers the electromagnet is used, which under tension drags the locking device enabling opening of the door. In powerful locks of vault type special electric drive is used for opening-closing of the locking pins. If building object is planned to be equipped by the access control system electromechanical locks should be better used as actuating devices. In case of fitting put of the operating object electromechanical latches should be better chosen, which can be utilized alongside with already installed locking devices.
Electromagnetic lock is a powerful magnet installed on the doorframe and a metal plate fixed on the door. The electromagnet is supplied by electric hold-on current; it attracts and holds the door with the plate. Electromagnets used in electromagnet locks can have retentivity power up to one ton and more. While door-open signal injection electromagnet power is switched off and the door can be freely opened. Doors with electromagnetic locks should be by all means equipped by the door closers for resetting into initial position.
Turnstile is a revolute system for access control to the secured territory. Turnstiles thanks to their construction have high throughput efficiency; that is why they are installed in places of mass pass onto enclosed territory – checkpoints, railway/metro line stations and i.e. In ordinary state the turnstile blocks the passage, while open-passage signal injection the turnstile can freely rotate about its axis enabling the pass onto the territory of the object. There are half- and full-length turnstiles. Half-length turnstiles can be got over, that is why they are used on the objects with low and moderate security requirements and are installed in direct closeness to the watchpost. For important objects full-length turnstiles should be better used, they thoroughly block the passage ability to the territory.
Entrance security cabins
Entrance security cabins like turnstiles are intended for installation in places of mass pass to the secured territory, but entrance security cabins supply intensified security level having at the same time lower flow capacity. Entrance security cabin of a tambour type is the premises with two doors among which only one can remain open. After entrance to the security cabin, the first door closes and only after controller’s access admittance signal the second door opens. Entrance security cabin of the tambour type meets high security requirements but has minimal flow capacity – 8/12 persons per minute. To increase throughput capacity entrance security cabins of rotary type are used; one rotary door is used in them, reminding turnstile by its construction. Rotary entrance security cabins can meet high security requirements, at the same time their flow capacity is two times higher than entrance security cabins of tambour type-18/22 persons per minute. To increase efficiency of entrance security cabins variety of certain devices - input metal detectors for weapons disclosure and weighing systems, averting simultaneous passage of more than one person are used in their construction. Entrance security cabins are manufactured of armor-coated glass or of the metal.
Elevators are also used as one of the variants of actuating devices in access control systems. Elevator is an entrance security cabin by its essence from which a person can get only to those floors where he has access authorization. Elevator’s stop on another floors and door opening is forbidden by access control system.
Automatic gates and turnstiles
Automatic gates and turnstiles are used for limitation of free automobile transport movement. Automatic turnstiles of different constructions as well as automatic gates of various versions – swinging, sliding, upward acting gates and roller shutters are used for this purpose. On the ordinary objects gates or turnstiles are enough means for transport’s encroachment restriction to the enclosed territory. On the objects with high security level anti-ram barriers for emergency automobile braking are used further to the gates and turnstiles.